Gandhara

Known as the Taxila Cross , it was found in just outside the ruins of Sirkap, the second city of Taxila, and is commonly believed to signify that Christianity had taken root in the subcontinent shortly after the crucifixion of Christ. According to this document, St Thomas having been assigned by Jesus to teach the gospel in India, arrived by boat at the seaside capital of King Gondophares. Working miracles, he successfully converted the king and all his subjects to Christianity. Now, whenever the Acts was compiled and even in when it surfaced in Syria, Taxila had not yet been discovered. Only serious historians well-acquainted with the history of Alexander knew that it lay somewhere to the east of the Indus River in Punjab — and not by the sea as the manuscript claims. Therefore whoever wrote the spurious document on St Thomas had only a smattering of history. His belief was strengthened by the fact that newly-excavated Sirkap did indeed date back to the 1st century. Driven by religious zeal, King completely overlooked the fact that the cross was not discovered inside any identifiable stratum of the ruins but outside in a field by a farmer.

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Although the term Kushan is known in ancient sources, it is often used to refer to a dynasty other than the one designated by modern historians. Chinese chronicles employed the term Yuezhi, and at least one Indian source Pargiter, , p. Even the term Kushan as it appears on coins—koshano in Bactrian —is absent on the coins of two kings of the dynasty, while it is employed liberally among their contemporaries, the Kushano-Sasanian, or Kushanshah, kings and the Kidarites.

In addition, many 3rd-century and later sources use the term to describe the region of Bactria.

Other historical and archaeological sites like ancient India’s Taxila and Nalanda universities may date back further, and ancient Sumerian societies first began incorporating scribal schools.

The site includes numerous related buildings, fortifications, settlements and monasteries, and shows architectural influences for the length of its role as a Buddhist training center, between the 5th century BC through the 2nd century AD. The capital was conquered by several groups, including Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. As a result, Persian, Greek and Asian influences are visible in the ruins of the city.

Taxila Museum is located at Texila, Punjab, Pakistan. Construction of Taxila museum started in , its foundation stone laid by Lord Chemsford, vicery of India in Construction was concluded in and the museum was opened for public by Sir Habibullah then the ministry for Education. Sir John Marshall who was going to be retired from the post of Director General of Archaeological survey of India in , could not complete its original plan. The government of Pakistan constructed the northern gallery in There are objects displayed, including stone, stucco, terracotta, silver, gold, iron and semiprecious stones.

Mainly the display consists of objects from the period B.

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Start the gallery Scroll to view the gallery Credit: Thomas Buttery This labyrinth of interconnecting alleyways and streets, fountains, souks and courtyards has remained much the same since the city’s rapid expansion during the Marinid dynasty in the 13th and 14th Centuries. Chris Griffiths Although dilapidated ruins of once-grand riad homes can be found around almost every corner, the Moroccan government has recently been investing more money into restoring the medina, which today is considered one of the best-preserved historical towns in the Arab-Muslim world.

A short walk around the medina reveals intricately carved Islamic calligraphy and mesmerising zellige mosaics — individually chiselled tiles placed in geometric patterns — that line the walls of mosques, Koranic schools and mausoleums. It is also the first degree-granting educational institution in the world.

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Amazing View of G-IV Buddhist Archeological Study Tours The rich historical and cultural past of Pakistan will take you through some of the most interesting historical cities of the world, enabling you to see and understand the diversity of their rich cultural and archeological heritage. Form the history of Pakistan Tracking history itself, we scrutinize the ruins of the excavated city of Taxila, one of the most important Buddhist sites in Indo-Pak subcontinent dating back from 6th century BC to 7th century Ad.

Then we travel onwards to the frontier town of Peshawar, which was founded years ago at the mouth of the ancient Khyber pass, explore its ancient bazaars, visit the impressive archeological Museums, old walled cities and Buddhist Monasteries. Moving north to the beautiful Swat valley, an important seat of Buddhism and a cross road of invaders and Buddhist pilgrims we travel through the Ancient Silk Road to China and Central Asia.

In 4th and 6th century Ad famous Chinese historians and Buddhist pilgrims Huan Tsang and Fa-Hian had visited Buddhist holy Shrines of Swat and Taxila and found these cities in ruins as the white Huns had cause absolute havoc and destroyed most parts of these cities. He then marched forward to Taxila, crossed the salt range in south of Islamabad, defeated the King Porus across the Jehlum River, followed the Indus river and finally headed west wards marching across the Makran Desert in Baluchistan.

Emperor Ashoka promoted Buddhism and Buddhist missionaries under his royal patronage had traveled all over the Gandhara region to preach the noble Teaching of the Lord Buddha. Thousand of Monasteries and stupas were built in Peshawar, Swat and Taxila. Gandhara became the Holy land and center of pilgrimage.

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Listening to all this I could hardly believe my ears that this was two academics talking, because most of what they said is completely nonsense. Frazier and Appleton laughed awkwardly. The reality is that we know almost nothing about Taxila other than what can be gleaned from brief mentions in ancient texts usually only the name numismatics, and archaeological findings during the 20th century.

Interestingly, the most detailed information we have about the city of Taxila come from Greek and Latin accounts of Alexander the Great’s visit written by Arrian, Curtius Rufus, Diodorus Siculus, etc, none of which mention a university.

Gandhara is the name of an ancient kingdom (Mahajanapada), located in modern day northern Pakistan and parts of eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau and on the Kabul River.

How to identify Macaulay infection? Jayakrushna Mohapatra planetary positions at the time of lord Ram can be prior to BC as evaluated which can be calculated in cyclic manner. The EPIC of Ramayana indicates the existence of the civilizations in Jambudwipa years ago and the incidents were happened. In satyug, the span was supposed to be 1 lac years and satyug was walked by only 18 generations of humans.

In tretayug, the life span drastically came down to years. In dwapara beginning the lifespan was further reduced to and came down to around years maximum towards the dwapara end. In kalyug beginning of was years on an average. By the time kalyug ends the average age will not exceed 14 years. Bharti Khatri In treya yug life was 10, years Not at all Rama lived for only 80 years??? In dwarpa Yuga life was years Krishna lived only Years???

dhamma musings: Taxila, University of the Air

The stones used in the construction are I to 2 m long, 0. All structures near here arc gridded and their position is fixed by sextant. The slip has how-ever completely disappeared and the core of the fabric has a pitted surface due to wave action. The sea became choppy and the currents strong from 15th to 21st January and the boats were heavily rolling.

The Taxila Cross There are two further pieces of evidence that might seem to suggest a St. Thomas connection with Pakistan, the one epigraphical, the other epigraphical evidence is an interesting cross found at Taxila and now lodged in the Anglican cathedral at Lahore, where it is known as the Taxila Cross. The social evidence concerns a fakir community which is said to be connected.

Pure silver wide long type to be added 1. Because they are so narrow, the imprint of the punch is always partial, and the entire symbol can never be seen on these. The presence or the absence of the dot and the exact variety of the punchmarks is usually difficult to determine because of that – it is possible that a number of different varieties exist, but they are difficult to identify. They are made of high quality silver and were probably minted in the first half of the series production.

Long concave silver bar, 48mm long, 9mm wide, struck with a 6-armed Gandharan symbol on each end. Long narrow type is very rare. Image courtesy ACC 1. Silver-plated or copper narrow long type This type is not likely to have been manufactured by the authorities for general circulation. The silver coating indicated that the coins were made by the ancient counterfeiters in order to deceive.

Some bars appear to be made out of copper, like the one pictured below. I don’t think any specimens especially of the early types, like the one pictured were officially produced – the coins that look like they are made out of copper were probably once silver-coated fourees which lost all or most of their silver coating.

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The city is known as a testament to Buddhism and it is said that the Buddha spent 40 years of his life preaching in this particular part of Pakistan. The city was also ruled by the Greeks under emperor Alexander the great. Taxila is a blend of wealthy urban and pastoral neighborhoods.

Dating from the 3 rd-5th centuries this monastery has an intact huge Stupa in one monastic cell which was actually a copy of the one in the Museum. The site was a monastery with monks’ cells and a kitchen well bathroom etc. all very good stonework again.

Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley Archaeological excavations show that the city may have grown significantly during the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE. Darius then returned to Persia via the Bolan Pass. The region continued under Achaemenid suzerainty under the reign of Xerxes I, and continued under Achaemenid rule for over a century. Indo-Greeks built a new capital, Sirkap , on the opposite bank of the river from Taxila. During lulls in Greek rule, the city managed profitably on its own, to independently control several local trade guilds, who also minted most of the city’s autonomous coinage.

Kushan[ edit ] In the first century CE, the Greek Neopythagorean philosopher Apollonius of Tyana visited Taxila, which his team described as a fortified city laid out on a symmetrical plan, similar in size to Nineveh. Inscriptions dating to 76 CE demonstrate that the city had come under Kushan rule by this time, after the city was captured from the Parthians by Kujula Kadphises , founder of the Kushan Empire. It is during this time that the City heavily features in Classical Indian Literature- both as a centre of Culture as well as a militarised border City.

Though repelled by the Gupta Emperor Skandagupta , the city would not recover- probably on account of the strong Hunnic presence in the area, breakdown of trade as well as the three-way war between Persia, the Kidarite State, and the Huns in Western Gandhara.

Know all about The historic city of Taxila

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Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau (see Taxila) and on the Kabul River. Its main cities were Purushapura (modern Peshawar), literally meaning City of Man [2] and Takshashila (modern Taxila).

Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley Archaeological excavations show that the city may have grown significantly during the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE. Darius then returned to Persia via the Bolan Pass. The region continued under Achaemenid suzerainty under the reign of Xerxes I, and continued under Achaemenid rule for over a century. His advisor, Kautilya , was said to have taught at Taxila’s university.

Indo-Greeks built a new capital, Sirkap , on the opposite bank of the river from Taxila. During lulls in Greek rule, the city managed profitably on its own, to independently control several local trade guilds, who also minted most of the city’s autonomous coinage. Kushan[ edit ] In the first century CE, the Greek Neopythagorean philosopher Apollonius of Tyana visited Taxila, which his team described as a fortified city laid out on a symmetrical plan, similar in size to Nineveh.

Inscriptions dating to 76 CE demonstrate that the city had come under Kushan rule by this time, after the city was captured from the Parthians by Kujula Kadphises , founder of the Kushan Empire. It is during this time that the City heavily features in Classical Indian Literature- both as a centre of Culture as well as a militarised border City. Though repelled by the Gupta Emperor Skandagupta , the city would not recover- probably on account of the strong Hunnic presence in the area, breakdown of trade as well as the three-way war between Persia, the Kidarite State, and the Huns in Western Gandhara.

Gandhara Civilization

Evidence of Stone Age human inhabitants of Gandhara, including stone tools and burnt bones, was discovered at Sanghao near Mardan in area caves. The artifacts are approximately 15, years old. More recent excavations point to 30, years before present. This culture survived till BC. Its evidence has been discovered in the hilly regions of Swat and Dir, and even at Taxila. It is said that Lord Rama consolidated the rule of the Kosala Kingdom over the whole of the Indian peninsula.

Check out #taxila photos & videos on Instagram: latest posts and popular posts about #taxila Toggle navigation. Discover. Instagram Login; #Murals of the #Buddhist era dating back to the 8th century can be found on the walls of the caves along with burnt diyas and trees with amulets tied to them.

Historically, Taxila lay at the crossroads of three major trade routes: Its elevation above the sea-level is meters. The Ruins The ruins of Taxila consist of many different parts of the city buildings and buddhistic stupas which are located in a large area. The main ruins of taxila are divided into three major cities, each belonging to a distinct time period.

The oldest of these is Bhir Mound which dates from the sixth century B. The second city of Taxila is located at Sirkap and was built by Greco-Bactrian kings in the second century B. The third and last city of Taxila is at Sirsukh and relates to the Kushan kings. Some of the important ruins of this category include the ruins of the stupa at Dharmarajika, the monastery at Jaulian, the monastery at Mohra Muradu in addition to a number of stupas.

Taksha was the son of Bharata and Mandavi, from Indian epic Ramayana. Chandragupta Maurya’s advisor Kautilya also known as Chanakya was a teacher at Taxila.

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Leben[ Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten ] Chandragupta herrschte von ca. Sein Nachfolger war sein Sohn Bindusara. Ihm folgte wiederum, nach heutigem Forschungsstand im Jahr v. Jede Aggression ablehnend, strebte er fortan nach freundschaftlichen Beziehungen mit seinen Nachbarn wie den Seleukiden und den Griechen in Baktrien. Allerdings scheint Ashoka keine grundlegende Reform der indischen Gesellschaft, verbunden mit einer klaren Zielvorstellung, betrieben zu haben; vielmehr ging es wohl um die Festlegung eines Standards von sozialem Verhalten.

The Taxila museum is noted for its magnificent collection of Gandharan art- a rare blend of Greek and Buddhist art, it also housed an interesting coin- collection, utensils, jewelry, toys and pottery highlighting the daily life of the inhabitants of ancient Taxila.

The fortress was built during the reign of the Pashtun king Sher Shah Suri between and in order to help subdue the rebellious tribes of the Potohar region of northern Punjab that were loyal to the Mughal crown. The fort is one of the largest and most formidable in the subcontinent. Rohtas Fort was never stormed by force, and has survived remarkably intact. The fort is known for its large defensive walls, and several monumental gateways.

It catches the attention of up to 40, visitors per annul and is the second largest salt mine in the world. Khewra Salt Mines are the oldest in the South Asia. Warth in had developed the main tunnel at ground level and that main tunnel has since been transformed into a tourist resort. Khewra salt mine has estimated total of million tonnes of rock salt deposits. The current production from the mine is , tons salt per annul. The mine-head buildings have 19 stories, with 11 below ground.

The salt-mine is feet above sea level and extends around 2, feet inside the mountains from the mine entrance. The collective length of all tunnels is more than 40 kilometers.

Islamabad to Taxila – Short Travel video (from mobile)