Clues to a Building’s History Thomas D. Visser Hand-wrought nail, before circa Type A cut nail, circa s s Type B cut nail, circa s s Wire nail, circa s to present Nails provide one of the best clues to help determine the age of historic buildings, especially those constructed during the nineteenth century, when nail-making technology advanced rapidly. Until the last decade of the s and the early s, hand-wrought nails typically fastened the sheathing and roof boards on building frames. These nails were made one by one by a blacksmith or nailor from square iron rod. After heating the rod in a forge, the nailor would hammer all four sides of the softened end to form a point. The pointed nail rod was reheated and cut off. Then the nail maker would insert the hot nail into a hole in a nail header or anvil and form a head with several glancing blows of the hammer. The most common shape was the rosehead; however, broad “butterfly” heads and narrow L-heads also were crafted. L-head nails were popular for finish work, trim boards, and flooring. Between the s and the early s, various machines were invented in the United States for making nails from bars of iron.
Block vs. Concrete
Pre-planning for adobe home construction – page 2 of 5 earth-building does take place in the Southwest, where a combination of Native American and Hispanic influences have fortified these ancient, yet contemporary building arts. However, there is an earth wall precedent in the eastern U. Rammed Earth has been practiced in wetter climates like England, France, and Germany since the Roman occupation.
European immigrants to the American colonies built with earth, using the skills of their homelands, especially before the advent of sawmills. Today, stabilization techniques keep moisture from affecting the earth walls.
Dating a building by inscription is a long tradition, though few name the architect in such brief form as that on the Town Hall at Blandford Forum which reads ‘Bastard, Architect, ‘.
Sometimes white girls hid me from their family, especially their father. I had one girlfriend in high school who strictly forbade doorbell ringing. She was not going to go through the trouble of calling attention to the fact that she was going out with a black guy. Dating a white girl intelligent dating uk By middle school, and especially high school, those expectations were even more apparent. I started to see what it really meant to be in an interracial relationship.
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History & discoveries
The details include a 30 page description of he design and construction process, a photo gallery, and a detailed thermal analysis spreadsheet. This is the most carefully thought out energy retrofit I have seen. R40 Larsen Truss walls, triple glazed R6 super windows, glazing revamped for passive solar heating, a new solarium, a hand crafted masonry heater, and much more.
But anyway, as regards slate, it’s been used in Europe, particularly in Wales, since the Middle Ages. In the States, it’s also been around for a while, though I think .
The masonry is formed by units such as brick , stone or block. Very generally, if the external walls of a building are less than 30 cm thick, then they are unlikely to include a cavity. Cavity walls existed in Greek and Roman times, but only developed as a component of more recent construction in the 18th and 19th centuries. Even during this time, they were very rare, and generally involved two skins of masonry bonded by headers spanning across the cavity. The use of metal ties to connect the two skins only emerged in the second half of the 19th century and then became more common towards the beginning of the 20th century.
In the UK , most new, external masonry walls have been cavity walls since the s. Any moisture that reaches the cavity from the outside, runs down the internal surface of the external skin and is directed to weep holes in the outer skin by cavity trays , where it will drain to the outside. Cavity trays are included where there are penetrations across the cavity, such as: At an abutment with a roof.
Above openings such as doors and windows.
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Box frame[ edit ] A simple timber frame made of straight vertical and horizontal pieces with a common rafter roof without purlins. The term box frame is not well defined and has been used for any kind of framing with the usual exception of cruck framing. The distinction presented here is that the roof load is carried by the exterior walls. Purlins are also found even in plain timber frames.
Cruck frame[ edit ] A “true” or “full” cruck half-timbered building in Weobley , Herefordshire , England: The cruck blades are the tall, curved timbers which extend from near the ground to the ridge.
How to find the age of a building: How old is my house? This article series provides a photo guide to determining the age of a building by examination of the architectural style of construction or the building materials and components that were used in the structure.
This had two rows of uprights on which the ceiling joists rested. The two rows of posts ran the length of the building and created the great central threshing floor or Diele characteristic of this type of farmhouse. This is an asymmetric version of the two- and four-post farmhouses, in which the roof ridge is located almost directly over one of the Deele walls.
Often the lower part of the roof is attached on both sides. The building is supported by four rows of uprights arranged longitudinally, of which two form the sides of the Deele and two form the outer walls. So the outsider walls have a load-bearing function. In farmhouses of more affluent farmers there is also a clearer separation between living quarters and animal stalls. Durchgangshaus[ edit ] In addition to the normal floor plan there are also farmhouses with a large gateway at both gable ends of the building in order to enable carts to be driven through from end to end.
In such a Durchgangshaus or “through house” the layout of the rooms was necessarily different. Even the hearth was not located in the usual place. This variant of the Low German house is often found in Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern , but also occasionally in Westphalia too.
Dating an old house
The Roman legacy can be seen in Early Classical Revival homes in the southern regions of the east coast, particularly Virginia. Increasingly, however, archaeological investigations of the early nineteenth century focused on Greece as the mother of Rome and shifted interest to Grecian architectural models. At the same time, the War of increased American resentments of British influence.
These factors led to a flowering of what is now known as Greek Revival architecture. Walter, Ithiel Town, etc.
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Upon encountering a new site, the archaeologist immediately requires information about its age in order to set it in context with other sites. In research into our heritage the conservationist or architect may be able to date the general period of a building he is working with from either the situation, materials of construction, type of timber joints or other stylistic features.
Almost certainly the century or portion of a century when it was built may be assigned with some certainty. However, as more and more work is done and increasing numbers of structures with complex constructional phases are encountered, the general features may not be sufficient to give the accuracy in dating that is currently required. If research into other sources of information also fails to throw light on the building’s history, resort may be made to the various scientific methods of dating.
This article outlines three of the most important methods currently used for dating buildings or, in a complex situation, the order of construction within the building. Each method has a distinct role in the investigation of historic buildings. None is infallible and before embarking on an extensive dating survey, due thought must be given to what might be achieved and which methods might be the more successful. If necessary, seek advice.
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Controversy[ edit ] Anthropologist Helen Fisher in What happens in the dating world can reflect larger currents within popular culture. For example, when the book The Rules appeared, it touched off media controversy about how men and women should relate to each other, with different positions taken by columnist Maureen Dowd of The New York Times  and British writer Kira Cochrane of The Guardian. Sara McCorquodale suggests that women meeting strangers on dates meet initially in busy public places, share details of upcoming dates with friends or family so they know where they’ll be and who they’ll be with, avoid revealing one’s surname or address, and conducting searches on them on the Internet prior to the date.
Each detail of your old house, from its appearance to construction, contains valuable clues to the building’s age. Dovetailed with building research, it often reveals a story of development and change. This brochure is a brief introduction to dating methods. Pamphlet created by.
Cummings studied physical evidence of more than First Period buildings to establish patterns of construction and decorative finish. As a group, the collection of First Period dwellings illustrates patterns reflecting both an evolution over time and, by the first quarter of the eighteenth century, the transition in the vernacular from the First Period to Georgian concepts of architecture.
In the course of his study, Cummings documented more than buildings and analyzed much of the information about the earliest period of New England settlement gathered by earlier antiquarians, historians, and architects. The present study of First Period buildings supports Cummings hypothesis that there are close links between English post-medieval domestic buildings in which the New World settlers were raised, and those that they and their descendants built in America.
Many of the early settlers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony came from East Anglia; a smaller, but highly significant group emigrated from the southwestern counties of England. An examination of humble dwellings and ways of life in these regions of England provides important clues to the origin of the house plan similar to that found in Massachusetts. Examples of the most common two-room, central-chimney plan can be found in both early seventeenth century East Anglia and in First Period Massachusetts Bay dwellings.
English precedents can be identified for First Period frame construction, roof design, and, to a large extent, the use of materials and decorative features. For instance, in Essex and Suffolk, England, a distinct lack of stone meant that the timber frame prevailed. The same type of construction occurred in New England, but for different reasons. In most regions of Essex and Middlesex Counties, Massachusetts, a scarcity of lime for mortar, too, made timber the preferred building material.
Trends have been identified for decorative treatments as well, although in this case, many of these trends are regional as well as having English precedents.
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Looking at antique furniture, we often seek clues for authenticity and age. There are many factors that show true historic construction, but one clue that is often .
Remodeling an MCM home differs from remodeling just any old house though. There are a number of differences to understand about MCM homes- characteristics that make them unique. Understanding these materials and methods helps determine the viability of a remodel and allows for a more straight-forward decision making process. Here are a few common characteristics of MCM homes: The foundations are solid- enough to support a second story addition when desired , the framing is usually in good shape- which is easy to supplement, and there is quite often pre-existing stone work and other textures- which is desirable to retain during the remodel and would be expensive to replicate on a new home.
Typically, the systems need replacing. The windows are typically single pane and updating them to energy efficient double-pane windows does wonders to keep the heat in, lower the heating bill and solve that drafty problem. So, another bonus of updating the window package is to strategically incorporate more operable windows for proper cross-ventilation, while maintaining that open feel to the outdoors.
There is typically little or no wall insulation and the ceiling insulation is usually well below current standards. The original floor plans are usually simple and straight-forward making it effective to move or lose walls depending on the new program. Often times, alterations to the actual plan of the MCM home are subtle, frankly almost invisible when the home is completed, yet the updated design functions and feels much improved. The original exterior elevations typically involve long horizontal lines with deep overhangs.
Should we build a solid concrete or cement block foundation? By This Old House magazine Q: We’re planning to build a house in a rural area where the local contractors use foundations made of cement block instead of the solid concrete we’re familiar with. Which one should we use?
Written records of construction and renovation are often confusing and conflicting — and people’s memories are even worse than that. The real estate lady says the house was built in The man down the street remembers when your house was being built in
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The history of nail making
History does not record who it was, but the incredible results of that inspirational moment are all around us – in the houses we live in, the bridges we cross, the furniture we sit on. Nails have been around for a long time. As soon as man discovered that heating iron ore could form metal, the ideas for shaping it quickly followed. Any sizeable Roman fortress would have its ‘fabrica’ or workshop where the blacksmiths would fashion the metal items needed by the army.
They left behind 7 tons of nails at the fortress of Inchtuthil in Perthshire. For nail making, iron ore was heated with carbon to form a dense spongy mass of metal which was then fashioned into the shape of square rods and left to cool.
The hardest house to date is a link home. They appear to be single, but if you do some digging they’re actually attached. As home inspectors, we have some tricks for figuring out the age of a house.
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